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General Pain

  1. Raja, Srinivasa, et al. The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises. PAIN. 161, 9. 1976-1982. (2020)
  2. Tracey, Irene & Mantyh, Patrick. The Cerebral Signature for Pain Perception and Its Modulation. Neuron. 55, 3. 377-391. (2007).
  3. Auvenshine R. C. Acute vs. chronic pain.  Dent. J.117, 7. 14–20. (2000).
  4. Grichnik, K. P. & Ferrante, F. M. The difference between acute and chronic pain. Sinai J. Med. 58,3. 217–220. (1991)
  5. Woolf C. J. What is this thing called pain?.  Clin. Investig.120, 11. 3742–3744. (2010).
  6. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Pain, Disability, and Chronic Illness Behavior, et al. Anatomy and Physiology of Pain.Pain and Disability: Clinical, Behavioral, and Public Policy Perspectives. National Academies Press (US). (1987) Available from:
  7. Crofford LJ. Chronic Pain: Where the Body Meets the Brain. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 126.167-83. (2015)
  8. Costigan M, et al. Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu Rev Neurosci. 32,1-32. (2009)
  9. Anekar AA & Cascella M. WHO Analgesic Ladder. [Updated 2020 May 17]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. (2021) Available from:
  10. IASP staff. Faces pain scale – revised. Available here:


  1. Bennett, J. et al. Inflammation – Nature’s way to efficiently respond to all types of challenges: Implications for understanding and managing “the epidemic” of chronic diseases. Frontiers In Medicine 5, 316 (2018).
  2. Cleveland Clinic Medical Professional. Inflammation. Cleveland Clinic (2023). Available at:
  3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Inflammation. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2023). Available at: https://www.britannica.com
  4. Ansar, W. & Ghosh, S. Inflammation and inflammatory diseases, markers, and mediators: Role of CRP in some inflammatory diseases. Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease. Springer New Delhi (2016).
  5. Pahwa, R. et al. Chronic Inflammation. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; StatPearls (2020). Available at:
  6. Harvard Health Publishing. Understanding acute and chronic inflammation. Harvard Health (2020). Available at:


  1. MSK Expert Panel. Symptoms of Gout. National Health Services (NHS) (2023). Available at:
  2. CDC Staff. Arthritis: Gout. Centers for Disease Control (2020). Available at:
  3. Tikly, M. & Makan. K. Gouty arthritis: An approach for general practice. South African Family Practice. 55, 307-312 (2013).
  4. Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Gout. Johns Hopkins Medical School. (n.d.). Available at:
  5. Versus Arthritis Staff. What Is Gout?. Versus Arthritis (2023). Available at:
  6. Tang, S.C.W. Gout: A Disease of Kings. Contrib Nephrol. 192, 77-81 (2018).
  7. Dalbeth, N. et al. The genetics of gout: towards personalised medicine? BMC Medicine. 15, 108 (2017).
  8. Roubenoff, R. Which Foods Are Safe For Gout?. Arthritis Foundation (n.d.). Available at:
  9. Hainer, B.L. et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout. American Family Physician. 90, 831-836 (2014).
  10. MacMullan, P. & McCarthy, G. Treatment and management of pseudogout: insights for the clinician. Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. 4, 121-131 (2012).


  1. Bartfai T & Conti B. Fever. ScientificWorldJournal. 16,10.490-503. (2010)
  2. Balli S & Sharan S. Physiology, Fever. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. (2020)
  3. Osilla, E. V. et al. Physiology, Temperature Regulation. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. (2020)
  4. Ng, D. K. et al. Childhood fever revisited. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi8, 1. 39–43. (2002)
  5. Ames, N. J. et al. A systematic approach for studying the signs and symptoms of fever in adult patients: the fever assessment tool (FAST). Health and quality of life outcomes15, 1. 84. (2017)
  6. Pearce C & Curtis N. Fever in children. Aust Fam Physician. 34, 9.769-71. (2005)
  7. De Ronne N. La fiévre chez les enfants de moins de 3 ans [Management of fever in children younger then 3 years]. J Pharm Belg. Sep, 3.53-7. French. (2010)
  8. Kanabar D. A practical approach to the treatment of low-risk childhood fever. Drugs in R&D14, 2. 45–55. (2014)
  9. Chiappini E, et al. Management of fever in children: summary of the Italian Pediatric Society guidelines. Clin Ther. 31, 8.1826-43. (2009)
  10. El-Radhi A. S. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice. World journal of clinical pediatrics.1, 4. 29–33. (2012)
  11. Laino, D., Mencaroni, E., & Esposito, S. Management of Pediatric Febrile Seizures. International journal of environmental research and public health15, 10. 2232. (2018)
  12. Mayo Clinic; Febrile seizure. (2023)
  13. Smith, D. K., et al. Febrile Seizures: Risks, Evaluation, and Prognosis. American family physician99, 7. 445–450. (2019)
  14. Durani Y. Febrile Seizures. Nemours Children’s Health. (2023)


  1. Chowdhury, Debashish. Tension-type headache. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 15, 1. 83-8. (2012)
  2. Trkanjec Z & Aleksić-Shihabi A. Glavobolje tenzijskog tipa [Tension-type headaches]. Acta Med Croatica. 62, 2. 205-10. (2008)
  3. Millea PJ & Brodie JJ. Tension-type Headache. Am Fam Physician. 66, 5.797-804. (2002)
  4. Speciali JG et al. Tension-type Headache. Expert Rev Neurother. 8, 5.839-53. (2008)
  5. Mayo Clinic Staff. Tension Headache. Available here:
  6. Russell, MB. Genetics of Tension-type Headache. J Headache Pain8, 71–76. (2007)
  7. Powers WJ & Derdeyn CP. Neuroimaging, Overview. Editor(s): Michael J. Aminoff, Robert B. Daroff. Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (Second Edition). Academic Press. 398-399. (2014)
  8. Bendtsen L & Jensen R. Treating Tension-Type Headache – An Expert Opinion. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 12, 7.1099-109. (2011) 


  1. Sokoloff, L. Joint disease. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020) Available at:
  2. NIH staff. Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions. (2018) Available at:
  3. NIAMS Staff. Arthritis. Available at:
  4. NHS Staff: Overview: Arthritis. Available at:
  5. Mobasheri, A. & Henrotin, Y. Biomarkers of (osteo)arthritis. Biomarkers. 20, 513-8. (2015)
  6. Pujalte, G. & Albano-Aluquin, S. Differential Diagnosis of Polyarticular Arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 92, 35-41. (2015)
  7. Okada, Y., et al. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis: 2018 status. Ann Rheum Dis. 78. 446-453. (2019)
  8. Demoruelle, M.K. & Deane, K.D. Treatment strategies in early rheumatoid arthritis and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 14, 472-80. (2012)
  9. Mann, W. et al. Assistive Devices Used by Home-Based Elderly Persons with Arthritis. J. Occup. Ther. 49, 810-820 (1995).
  10. Gioia C, et al. Dietary Habits and Nutrition in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can Diet Influence Disease Development and Clinical Manifestations? Nutrients. 12, 1456 (2020). 

Cold & Flu

  1. Fashner, J. et al. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician.86(2), 153–159 (2012).
  2. Passioti, M. et al. The common cold: potential for future prevention or cure.  Allergy Asthma Rep.14(2), 413 (2014).
  3. Shellack, et al. An overview of cold and flu management. S Afr Pharm J. 87(3), 38-42. (2020).
  4. Gaitonde, D. Y. et al. Influenza: Diagnosis and Treatment. Am Fam Physician100(12), 751–758 (2019).
  5. Mosa, A. I. Antigenic Variability. Immunol. 11, 2057 (2020).
  6. Jiao, P. et al. Research advance of influenza B viruses.  J. Biotechnol.34(6), 821–831 (2018).
  7. Sederdahl, B. K. & Williams, J. V. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Influenza C Virus. 12(1), 89 (2020).
  8. Grief S. N. Upper respiratory infections.  Care40(3), 757–770 (2013).
  9. Machowska, A. & Stålsby Lundborg, C. Drivers of Irrational Use of Antibiotics in Europe.  J. Environ. Res16(1), 27 (2018).
  10. Abioye, A. I., et al. Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Glob. Health6(1), e003176 (2021).


  1. Weinberger, M. & Hurvitz, M. Diagnosis and management of chronic cough: similarities and differences between children and adults. F1000Research9, F1000 Faculty Rev-757. (2020).
  2. Murgia, V., et al. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection-Associated Acute Cough and the Urge to Cough: New Insights for Clinical Practice. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. Pulmonol. 33(1), 3–11. (2020).
  3. Grarup, P. A. & Pedersen, J. L. Chronic cough in children. Laeg177(16), V11140593. (2015).
  4. Bonvini, S. J. & Belvisi, M. G. Cough and airway disease: The role of ion channels. Pulm. Pharmacol. Ther. 47, 21–28. (2017).
  5. Dąbrowska, M., et al. Chronic cough related to the upper airway cough syndrome: one entity but not always the same. Arch. Oto-Rhino-L277(10), 2753–2759. (2020).
  6. Renjini, A. et al. Graph-based feature extraction and classification of wet and dry cough signals: a machine learning approach.  Complex Netw.9(6), cnab039. (2021).
  7. Muzalyova, A. & Brunner, J. O. Determinants of the utilization of allergy management measures among hay fever sufferers: a theory-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health.20(1), 1876. (2020).
  8. Aring, A. M. & Chan, M. M. Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis. Am Fam Physician.94(2), 97–105. (2016).
  9. Wang, K. et al. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev2014(9), CD003257. (2014).
  10. Widysanto, A . & Mathew, G. Chronic Bronchitis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. (2021).
  11. Mahashur, A. Chronic dry cough: Diagnostic and management approaches. Lung India32(1), 44–49. (2015).
  12. Michaudet, C. & Malaty, J. Chronic Cough: Evaluation and Management. Am Fam Physician96(9), 575–580. (2017).
  13. CDC Staff. Coughing and Sneezing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Available at:
  14. Smith, S. M., et al. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev2014(11), CD001831. (2014).

Sore Throat

  1. Sykes, E. A. et al. Pharyngitis: Approach to diagnosis and treatment. Can Family Physician.66(4), 251–257 (2020).
  2. Nibhanipudi, K. V. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children. Pediatr. Health. 3, (2016).
  3. McGrath A, Barrett MJ. Petechiae. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. (2021).
  4. Bhutta BS, Hafsi W. Cheilitis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. (2021).
  5. National Cancer Institute Staff. Dictionary of Cancer Terms. NCI Dictionaries. (2021). Available at:
  6. Koko, A. Viral Pharyngitis Follow-up. Medscape. (2019). Available at:
  7. Cots, Josep, et al. Recommendations For The Management Of Acute Pharyngotonsillitis In Adults. Sick Infecc Microbiol Clin. 34(9), 585-594. (2016).

Blocked Nose

  1. Mulla, O., et al. A man with a blocked nose. BMJ345,7567. (2012).
  2. Morcom, S., et al. Sinusitis. Aust Fam Physician45,6. 374–377. (2016).
  3. Eccles, R. The role of nasal congestion as a defence against respiratory viruses.  Otolaryngol. 46,1. 4–8. (2021).
  4. Mahdavinia, M., et al. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther15,5. 457–465. (2017).
  5. Sedaghat, A. Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Am Fam Physician96,8. 500–506. (2017).
  6. Wahid, N. & Shermetaro, C. Rhinitis Medicamentosa. In: StatPearls. [Internet] StatPearls Publishing. (2021).
  7. Foden, N., et al. A guide to the management of acute rhinosinusitis in primary care: management strategy based on best evidence and recent European guidelines.  J. Gen. Pract63,616. 611–613. (2013).
  8. Ciprandi, G. & Gelardi, M. Open and clean: the healthy nose. Acta Biomed90, 2-S. 4–6. (2019).
  9. AAFA staff. Sinus Infections. (2015). Available at:
  10. Santoro, E., et al. The role of saline nasal sprays or drops in nasal hygiene: a review of the evidence and clinical perspectives. Rhinology. 4. 1-16. (2021).

Understanding Allergies

  1. AFSA staff. What is an allergy and how is it treated?. (2019). Available at:
  2. Simon D. Recent Advances in Clinical Allergy and Immunology.  Arch. Allergy Immunol177,4. 324–333. (2018).
  3. AFSA staff. Allergy. (2022). Available at:

Allergic Rhinitis

  1. Smith, S., et al. The Help for Hay Fever community pharmacy-based pilot randomised controlled trial for intermittent allergic rhinitis. NPJ Prim30, 1. 23. (2020).
  2. May, J. R. & Dolen, W. K. Management of Allergic Rhinitis: A Review for the Community Pharmacist.  Ther.39, 12. 2410–2419. (2017).
  3. Hoyte, F. & Nelson, H. S. Recent advances in allergic rhinitis. F1000Research7, F1000 Faculty Rev-1333. (2018).
  4. Sur, D. K. & Plesa, M. L. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis. Am Fam Physician92, 11. 985–992. (2015).
  5. Wheatley, L. M. & Togias, A. Clinical practice. Allergic rhinitis. NEJM372, 5. 456–463. (2015).
  6. AFSA staff. What is an allergy and how is it treated?. (2019). Available at:

Skin Allergy

  1. Motswaledi, H. Allergic skin conditions – causes, clinical features and treatment. S Afr Fam Pract. 60, 6. 34-37. (2018).
  2. McConnell, T. Disorders of the Immune System. In: Study Guide for the Nature of Disease [Internet]. Jones & Bartlett Learning. (2020).
  3. Schaefer, P. Acute and Chronic Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment. Am Fam Physician95, 11. 717–724. (2017).
  4. Memon R.J., Tiwari V. Angioedema. [Updated 2021 Dec 25]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:
  5. Avena-Woods, C. Overview of atopic dermatitis.  J. Manag. Care23, 8 Suppl. S115–S123. (2017).
  6. Weston, W. & Howe, W. Patient education: Contact dermatitis (including latex dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics). (2021). Available here:
  7. Kostner, L., et al. Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am37, 1. 141–152. (2017).
  8. Fishbein, A., et al. Update on Atopic Dermatitis: Diagnosis, Severity Assessment, and Treatment Selection. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract8, 1. 91–101. (2020).
  9. AFSA Staff. Allergy Testing. (2020). Available here:


  1. Almeshari, MA et a Physiological tests of small airways function in diagnosing asthma: a systemic review. BMJ Open Resp Res. 7(770). (2020).
  2. Rehman, A. et al. Prevalence of asthma and its management: A review.  Pak. Med68(12), 1823–1827. (2018).
  3. Rothe, T., et al. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma – The Swiss Guidelines. Respir95(5), 364–380. (2018).
  4. Jin, J. Asthma Attacks. JAMA315(8), 832. (2016).
  5. Patel, S. J. & Teach, S. J. Asthma. Pediatr Rev.40(11), 549–567. (2019).
  6. Wu, T. D., et al. Asthma in the Primary Care Setting.  Clin N.103(3), 435–452. (2019).
  7. D’Amato, G., et al. Near fatal asthma: treatment and prevention. Allergy: Eur. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol48(4), 116–122. (2016).
  8. Kuruvilla, M. E., et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for asthma.  Med149, 16–22. (2019).
  9. Toskala, E. & Kennedy, D. W. Asthma risk factors. Int. Forum Allergy Rhinol. 5 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S11–S16. (2015).